Properties Of Polyelectrolytes

Properties Of Polyelectrolytes

Polyelectrolytes are polymers with dissociating groups in their repeat units. They can be divided into polycations and polyanions and polysalts. Like odd electrolytes (acids, bases and salts), they dissociate in aqueous solutions (water) and bear one or more costs depending on the pH value. Thus, the properties of polyelectrolytes are just like both electrolytes and polymers. The salts, i.e. the products of a polyacids (polyanions) with a monomeric base and vice versa are called polysalts. Like regular salts, their solutions are electrically conductive and like polymers, their viscosity strongly depends on the molecular weight and polymer concentration.

The three most typical anionic groups are carboxylate (–COO-), phosphonate (–PO3H-, –PO32-), and sulfonate (–SO3-) and the most common cationic groups are primary, secondary and quaternary ammonium (–NH3+, =NH2+ & ≡N+). The type of ionic group, its counter ion and the structure of the repeat unit decide the properties of a polyelectrolyte akin to solubility in water and different polar and hydrogen-bonding liquids (alcohols etc.), electrical conductivity, and answer viscosity. Unlike nonionic polymers, these properties strongly depend on the pH and salt content.

Polyelectrolytes might be chemically crosslinked by incorporating a small quantity of a suitable crosslinking agent. These polyelectrolytes type three-dimensional buildings that swell in water fairly than dissolving in it. They will retain (extremely) giant amounts of liquid relative to their own mass by means of hydrogen bonding with water molecules. They're called hydrogels or superabsorbent polymers (SAP’s) when (slightly) cross-linked. Their ability to absorb water is a factor of the ionic focus of the aqueous solution. In deionized and distilled water, SAPs may take up water up to 500 times their own weight and from 30 to 60 occasions their own quantity, that's, a hydrogel can include more than ninety nine% liquid. The total absorbency and swelling capacity of SAP’s is managed by the type and quantity of crosslinks in the structure.

Both natural and artificial polyelectrolytes are manufactured on a large scale. Common natural polyelectrolytes are pectin (polygalacturonic acid), alginate (alginic acid), carboxymethyl cellulose and polypeptides. Examples of common artificial polyelectrolytes are polyacrylic acid, polystyrene sulfonate, polyallylamine, automobileboxymethyl cellulose and their salts. A few of these polyelectrolytes are depicted beneath:

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